In-Line Formatting Examples

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In-Line Formatting Examples

by charliehoward » Tue Feb 15, 2011 3:42 am

                                                     IN-LINE FORMATTING EXAMPLES

These examples generally use italics, but most of them also apply to boldface, MIXED-CASE SMALL-CAPS, font changes, and g e s p e r r t.

Each example below is in a "quote" box. The first part shows how text might look in a printed book (the page image).  The second part shows how we format it. Critical punctuation marks often will be in red. Sometimes, there will be further explanation below the boxes.
Let's start with a simple example: just one word.

Let's start with a simple example: just <i>one</i> word.
Almost as simple: an entire sentence.

<i>Almost as simple: an entire sentence.</i>
Note that the colon and the period are INSIDE the markups, because the entire sentence is in italics.

When only part of the sentence is in italics, a trailing comma goes OUTSIDE the markup.

<i>When only part of the sentence is in italics</i>, a trailing comma goes OUTSIDE the markup.
Why? Because the comma is a separator; it isn't part of what's being emphasized.

Note: a colon is a separator, too, and also goes OUTSIDE the markup.

<i>Note</i>: a colon is a separator, too, and also goes OUTSIDE the markup.
(Unless the entire sentence is in italics, boldface, small-caps, etc.)

However, if punctuation is in the middle of italics, it's part of what's being emphasized, so we include it within the markup (but, see "in-line lists," below).

However, if punctuation is in the <i>middle of italics, it's part of what's being emphasized</i>, so we include it within the markup (but, see "in-line lists," below).
And note that the trailing comma is not part what's emphasized, so it goes OUTSIDE the markup.

The ending period goes OUTSIDE the markup when only part of the sentence is italicized.

The period goes OUTSIDE the markup when only <i>part of the sentence is italicized</i>.
Why?  Because the period belongs to the entire sentence, not just to the end of it, and the entire sentence is not italicized.

But (there's always a "but"), the period at the end of an italicized abbreviation goes INSIDE the markup, because it's part of the abbreviation, e.g., 45 B.C.

<i>But</i> (there's always a "but"), the period at the end of an italicized <i>abbreviation</i> goes INSIDE the markup, because it's part of the abbreviation, <i>e.g.</i>, 45 <sc>B.C.</sc>
Note that the comma after "e.g." goes OUTSIDE, because it's a separator and is not part of what's being italicized.

Here are some of the more common abbreviations, often found in the footnotes (where they are hard to read, and not always italicized or small-capped):
i.e., e.g., op. cit., ibid., B.C., A.D., A.M., P.M., James II.

<i>i.e.</i>, <i>e.g.</i>, <i>op. cit.</i>, <i>ibid.</i>, <sc>B.C.</sc>, <sc>A.D.</sc>, <sc>A.M.</sc>, <sc>P.M.</sc>, James <sc>II.</sc>
But these are not abbreviations:
supra, infra, passim



This brings us to in-line lists.
The first U.S. presidents were Washington, John Adams, Jefferson, and Madison.

The first U.S. presidents were <i>Washington</i>, <i>John Adams</i>, <i>Jefferson</i>, and <i>Madison</i>.
The names are italicized, but the commas are just separators, so they go OUTSIDE the markups.  We do not take the lazy way out by enclosing the entire list in one set of markups :), and "and" is just a conjunction, not the name of an obscure former head of state.

Of course, just because a sentence contains several commas, it isn't necessarily a list.

<i>Of course, just because a sentence contains several commas, it isn't necessarily a list.</i>


"Quotation marks" and (parentheses) are containers.

"<i>Quotation marks</i>" and (<i>parentheses</i>) are <i>containers</i>.
We mark the contents, but not the containers.
But, if they are in the middle of italicized material (as was the case with punctuation), we include them in the markups.

<i>But, if they are in the middle of italicized material (as was the case with punctuation), we include them in the markups.</i>

When part of a DATE is in italics, we mark the entire date that way:
July 4, 1776

<i>July 4, 1776</i>
When part of a sentence (or of a paragraph) is in ALL SMALL-CAPS, we mark that part, making sure all of the letters are in Upper-Case. When part of a sentence is in MIXED SMALL-CAPS, we mark that part, using the upper/lower-case mix. At DP, there is no such thing as all lower-case small-caps, so when an entire paragraph appears to be in ALL SMALL-CAPS, we do not mark it at all.  This mostly applies to headings.

When part of a sentence (or of a paragraph) is in <sc>ALL SMALL-CAPS</sc>, we mark that part, making sure all of the letters are in Upper-Case. When part of a sentence is in <sc>Mixed Small-Caps</sc>, we mark that part, using the upper/lower-case mix. At DP, there is no such thing as all lower-case small-caps, so when an entire paragraph appears to be in ALL SMALL-CAPS, we do not mark it at all.  This mostly applies to headings.



HEADINGS ARE A LITTLE DIFFERENT.

When headings seem to be in boldface or ALL SMALL-CAPS, we don't mark them, but we do mark them when they're in italics or Mixed Small-Caps.
HEADINGS ARE A LITTLE DIFFERENT.

HEADINGS ARE A LITTLE DIFFERENT.
HEADINGS ARE A LITTLE DIFFERENT.

<i>HEADINGS ARE A LITTLE DIFFERENT.</i>
HEADINGS ARE A LITTLE DIFFERENT.

<sc>Headings are a Little Different.</sc>
We marked this example because it's in MIXED Small-Caps (some letters in upper-case, some in lower-case).  If a heading is in all upper-case, even if the letters look squat, we do not consider it to be in Small-Caps:
HEADINGS ARE A LITTLE DIFFERENT.
is all upper-case and is not marked. It may look like ALL SMALL-CAPS, but all we do is make sure it's ALL UPPER-CASE (use the ABC button if it was proofed as all lower-case) and leave it alone.  Why? Well, think of it as a paragraph: we don't mark full-paragraph font-size changes.


If the heading is in a different font (often Black Letter / Olde English), we do not mark it unless the Project Instructions request such a markup.  Then, the usual markup is <f>text</f> (font change). Similarly, we don't mark Black Letter on Title pages, copyright pages, etc. (unless the Project Comments ask us to do so).

Note that, when the entire heading is in italics (or Mixed Small-Caps), it's treated like a sentence, so the period goes INSIDE the markup.

Also note that a sentence can consist of just a single word:
Apples.

<i>Apples.</i>


What about exclamation marks and question marks?

What about <i>exclamation marks</i> and <i>question marks</i>?
Typesetters ooften italicize them when they follow an italicized word (as shown here), to minimize the gap between them. However, we base our decision on the intent of the sentence. In this case, the sentence is a question, it is not entirely italicized, so the question mark, which belongs to the sentence, goes OUTSIDE the markup.

The watchman called, What of the night?

The watchman called, <i>What of the night?</i>
Within this declarative sentence, the question mark belongs to the interrogative phrase, so it goes INSIDE.

He yelled Stop!, but we kept walking.

He yelled <i>Stop!</i>, but we kept walking.
It obviously belongs to the word.




And finally, three general suggestions:

1. Always read the Project Instructions and Discussion.  If they are different from the standard Guidelines, follow the Project Instructions.

2. Use the formatting buttons in the Proofing Interface.  It's too easy to make an error trying to type those markups in by hand.

3. When in doubt, search these Forums and if you still don't find an answer, never hesitate to ask questions.  That's how the rest of us learned how to do this. If the question is specific to a Project, ask in it's Discussion.  If the question is more general, ask in the Formatting Forum.

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